Burnetii and hematoxylin were used for staining; original magnification is ×50. This organism is uncommon, but may be found in cattle, sheep, goats, and other domestic mammals, including cats and dogs. The infection results from inhalation of a spore-like small-cell variant, and from contact with the milk, urine, feces, vaginal mucus, or semen of infected animals. The most common manifestation is flu-like symptoms with abrupt onset of fever, malaise, profuse perspiration, severe headache, muscle pain, joint pain, loss of appetite, upper respiratory problems, dry cough, pleuritic pain, chills, confusion, and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Chloroquine and primaquine malaria Hydroxychloroquine dose Hydroxychloroquine treatment myalgia Plaquenil free drug Hydroxychloroquine may not prevent malaria in all cases. If you experience fever or other symptoms of illness, seek immediate medical attention. You may need a different medication. Other forms of chronic Q fever include infections of vascular aneurysms, bone, liver, or reproductive organs. Top of Page. Diagnosis. Several aspects of Q fever make it challenging for healthcare providers to diagnose and treat. The symptoms vary from patient to patient and can be difficult to distinguish from other diseases. Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Endocarditis is the most-serious complication of Q fever, and the optimal duration of treatment using doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is 18 months for native valves and 24 months for prosthetic valves 5, 6. During its course, the disease can progress to an atypical pneumonia, which can result in a life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome, whereby such symptoms usually occur during the first four to five days of infection. About half of infected individuals exhibit no symptoms. Hydroxychloroquine q fever Q fever tricuspid valve endocarditis Archives of Disease in., Information for Healthcare Providers Q Fever CDC Plaquenil stomach side effectsSide effects of hydroxychloroquinNursing interventions prior to plaquenil administrationPlaquenil and heart issues Background Q fever endocarditis, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is fatal in 25% to 60% of patients. Currently, treatment with a long-term tetracycline and quinolone regimen for at least 4 years is recommended, although relapses are frequent. Treatment of Q Fever Endocarditis Comparison of 2 Regimens.. Vitamin D and Prolonged Treatment with Photosensitivity.. Hydroxychloroquine - Wikipedia. Plaquenil is the brand name for the prescription drug hydroxychloroquine. For example, it may be combined with an antibiotic to treat chronic Q-fever. The advent of the combination of doxycycline plus hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for Q fever endocarditis in the 1990’s has been very beneficial to patients as this has reduced relapses and the need for valve replacements. However, this treatment still requires 18 months of antibiotic therapy, and some patients cannot tolerate doxycycline. Combination therapy with doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is recommended for patients with chronic Q fever 10. Hydroxychloroquine is known to raise the pH of vacuoles that support C. burnetii.